Symptom Details

When swelling is not a result of an injury it can be concerning. The symptom may be the result of many different conditions, but it may also signify an underlying venous condition such as deep venous disease (DVD), superficial venous insufficiency (SVI) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

These venous problems lead to pooling of the blood in the legs or obstructed veins. Without proper blood flow in these areas, extra fluid can begin to build in the tissue. This pressure can cause puffiness in one leg or both, often restricting the range of motion in the ankles and feet.

For some people, swelling can become so uncomfortable that the skin in the area becomes stretched and shiny.2 The skin can begin to seep and cause further breakdown.

The progressive condition may start out with mild symptoms but with time, may lead to more moderate to severe symptoms.1,2,3

Mild

  • A feeling of fullness or heaviness in the leg
  • Swelling may come and go periodically, depending on the disease and your level of activity
  • A warm feeling in the leg may develop
  • Swelling may affect just a small area

Moderate

  • Discomfort, especially when in motion
  • Skin changes, such as discoloration and redness
  • Clothing may not fit properly
  • The skin may feel tight, stretched, or itchy
  • Varicose veins may develop

Severe

  • Fluid spreads, becoming trapped in the leg and ankle
  • There may be pain if the swelling becomes extreme
  • Swelling becomes chronic and is generally not relieved with compression stockings or by elevating legs
  • Difficulty walking, especially as venous disease progresses

Causes

Swelling in the feet and ankles can be the result of venous problems, including damaged valves that cause pooling of blood or obstructed veins that can’t transport enough blood back to the heart. When veins can’t function properly, fluid is forced out of the blood vessels into the surrounding tissue.

Swelling in these areas may also be a result of obstructed lymphatic vessels, known as lymphedema. Fluid can begin to collect in these vessels and leak out into the tissue.

There are also various conditions not related to PVD that may cause swelling. It is important to consult your doctor to determine the cause of swelling.

Risk Factors

Various conditions can lead to swelling, depending on underlying causes. Some people may carry a higher risk than others for developing the symptom.

Risk factors include:3,4

  • Chronic conditions such as heart disease, liver disease and kidney disease
  • Pregnancy, which can put pressure on a woman’s pelvic area and surrounding veins
  • Age can be a factor as blood flow slows in the legs
  • Salt and other high sodium foods can increase risk
  • Standing or sitting too long can disrupt blood flow
  • Certain medications can lead to swelling
  • Previous history of DVT resulting in vein valve damage

What to Look For

If you are unsure of what to look for when determining if you have chronic or severe swelling, these are some helpful tips. It is important to consult your doctor to help determine a correct diagnosis.

  • Puffiness
  • Discomfort
  • Skin changes such as redness or discoloration
  • General warmness in the affected area
  • When pressing on the skin, it leaves a dent
  • Motion in ankles may be restricted as swelling progresses
  • Difficulty walking in severe cases

Associated Symptoms

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins can become inflamed when the pooling of blood results in pressure on the vein walls resulting in redness, swelling, and a diffuse pain.

Skin Changes

The skin of the legs, ankles or feet may exhibit color changes, eczema, temperature changes, thickening of the skin and itching.

Tired, heavy legs

Bothersome leg discomfort may include pain, tiredness and heaviness due to increased venous pressure in the legs.

When to See a Doctor

When mild leg swelling persists or when you have moderate to severe swelling that does not go away, it is important to obtain a diagnosis right away.

Take the step and talk to your doctor, or use our tool to locate a physician to get the help you need.

Helpful Resources

PVD Doctor
Discussion Guide

Get helpful tips and advice on how to talk to your doctor about a PVD screening.

Download now

Third-Party Resources

Apps

CardioVisual

A mobile app built by cardiologists, to simplify understanding of most cardiac and peripheral vascular conditions and treatments.

cardio visual app
app store, google play

Find a Doctor

Consult your doctor to learn more about and prevent swelling and edema. You can also use our tool below to find a specialist near you.

 
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Blaine Borders

102 Thomas Rd. Suite 205 | West Monroe, LA, 71291

Pat Neville

4600 Memorial Dr. Suite 240 | Belleville, IL, 62226

Charles Wyble

61 Witcher Street, Suite 2100 | Marietta, GA, 30060

David Gillespie

363 Highland Ave | Fall River, MA, 2720

Polly Kokinos

2255 S. Bascom Avenue #200 | Campbell, CA, 95008

Howard Roth

23120 South LaGrange Road | Frankfort, IL, 60423

Micheal Ayad

300A Faunce Corner Rd N | Darthmouth, MA, 02908

Ashish Gupta

S 1222 Orange Ave | Orlando, FL, 32806

Orlando Health Heart Institute

Muthusamy Velusamy

6328 Gunn Hwy | Tampa, FL, 33625

Scott Cameron

601 Elmwood Ave | Rochester, NY, 14624

Peder Horner

1746 Cole Boulevard | Lakewood, CO, 80401

William Crowder

970 Lakeland Drive | Jackson, MS, 39216

Jana Bevill

1000 Towne Center Blvd | Pooler, Georgia, 31322

Awais Siddique

2500 West Layton Ave. | Milwaukee, WI, 53221

Kenneth Wright

19189 N Dale Mabry Hwy | Lutz, FL, 33548

Rick Coats

4600 Memorial Dr # 240 | Belleville, IL, 62260

Sendhil Subramanian

7130 Mt. Zion Blvd, Suite #10 | Jonesboro, GA, 30236

Richard Pin

363 Highland Ave | Fall River, MA, 2720

James McPherson

4644 Lincoln Blvd. Suite 500 | Marina del Rey, CA, 90292

Ben Marson

85 Old Kings Highway N, 1st Floor | Darien, CT, 6820

Fuad Rafidi

23101 Sherman Place | West Hills, CA, 91307

Mohamed Sheta

3709 Magnolia Street | Orangeburg, SC

Dialysis Access Institute

M. Syed Faisal Alam

1525 E. Beltline Ave, NE | Grand Rapids, MI, 49525

Manish Chauhan

2200 Park bend | Austin, TX, 78757

E. Jerry Cohn Jr., MD, FACS

4750 Water Avenue | Savannah, GA, 31410

James Bennett

970 Lakeland Drive | Jackson, MS, 39216

Elias Kassab

5250 Auto Club Drive | Dearborn, Michigan , 48126

Arash Padidar

105 N. Bascom Ave. | San Jose, CA, 95128

Alberto Gonzalez

19189 N Dale Mabry Hwy | Lutz, FL, 33548

Ayaz Malik

1035 Bellevue Ave #500 | St. Louis, MO, 63117

Isabel Newton

200 W Arbor Dr. | San Diego, CA, 92103

Michael Ayad

363 Highland Avenue | Fall River, MA, 2720

Jozsef Lukacs

24800 S.E. Stark St. | Gresham, OR, 97030

Taras Kucher

495 Hawley Lane, Suite 2-A | Stratford, CT, 6614

Zahi Nassoura

2710 Alameda Ave | Burbank, CA, 91505

Kishor Vora

1200 Breckenridge Street | Owensboro, KY, 42303

Owensboro Heart & Vascular

Todd Jenkins

500 J. Clyde Morris Blvd | Newport News, VA, 23601

Deepak Nair

600 N Cattlemen Rd | Sarasota, FL, 34232

Larry Horesh, MD

4750 Water Avenue | Savannah, GA, 31410

Thomas Davis

24211 Little Mack Ave | Saint Clair Shores, MI, 48080

Nishit Choksi

5250 Auto Club Drive | Dearborn, Michigan , 48126

Ben Marsan

215 Stillwater Ave | Stamford, CT, 6902

Parag Patel

6633 Forest Ave #300 | New Port Richey, FL, 34653

Hoang Nguyen

2 Good Samaritan Way Suite 220 | Mt. Vernon, IL, 62864

(Charles) Daniel Procter

725 Jesse Jewell Parkway #125 | Gainesville, GA, 30501

Michael Naumann

7777 Alvarado Road, Suite 108 | La Mesa, CA, 91942

Stephen Lalka

1001 Blythe Blvd., Suite 300 | Charlotte, NC, 28203

Jamie Strachan

1449 Old Waterbury Rd, Suite 101 | Southbury, CT, 6488

Harold Tabaie

18905 Sherman Way | Reseda, CA, 91335

Ali Raza M.D.

2100 1st Avenue South | St. Petersburg, FL, 33712

Gateway Radiology

Edward Jerry Cohn

4750 Waters Ave | Savanna, GA, 31404

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7703 Floyd Curl Drive | SanAntonio, Texas, 78229

Anthony Avino, MD, FACS

4750 Water Avenue | Savannah, GA, 31410

Marc Gosselin

24211 Little Mack Ave | Saint Clair Shores, MI, 48080

Nishta Sareen

5250 Auto Club Drive | Dearborn, Michigan , 48126

Timothy Manoni

215 Stillwater Ave | Stamford, CT, 6902

Robert Freedman

3311 Prescott Road | Alexandria, LA, 71301

Daniel Simon

347 Mount Pleasant Ave Suite 100 | West Orange, NJ, 7052

Daniel McDevitt

1035 Southcrest Dr, Suite 250 | Stockbridge, GA, 30281

Marvin Padnick

350 South 40th Street | Muskogee, OK, 74401

Patrick Mahon

87 McGregor Street | Manchester, NH, 3102

Stephen Bauer

1445 East Putman Ave, 1st Floor | Old Greenwich, CT, 6870

Lev Pukin M.D

2560 Ocean Ave | Brooklyn, NY, 11229

Gagandeep Mangat M.D

2100 1st Avenue South | St. Petersburg, FL, 33712

Gateway Radiology

Harold Tabaie

18905 Sherman Way | Reseda, CA, 91335

Junyang Lou

520 Medical Center Drive | Medford, OR, 97504

Spencer Brown

6076 Bristol Parkway | Culver City, CA, 90230

Lina M Vargas

410 Celebration | Celebration, FL, 34747

Sanjeev Ravipudi

2103 Silva Lane | Moberly, MO, 65270

Taras Kucher

215 Stillwater Ave | Stamford, CT, 6902

Raghotham Patlola

5003 Hardy St, Ste 200 | Hattiesburg, MS, 39402

Bruce Brenner

200 S. Orange Ave | Livingston, NJ, 7052

Ernest Conti

3929 Mercy Drive | McHenry, IL, 60050

Sanjeev Trehan

6151 South Yale Ave Suite 1304 | Tulsa, OK, 74136

Tara Balint

2010 Health Campus Drive | Harrisonburg, VA, 22801

Jonathan Bowman

495 Hawley Lane, Suite 2-A | Stratford, CT, 6614

Junyang Lou

455 Toll Gate Rd | Warwick, RI, 02886

Brigham and Women's Cardiovascular Associates at Care New England

Ratan Ahuja

759 Harley Strickland Blvd | Orange City, FL, 32763

Florida Cardiopulmonary Center

Lev Pukin M.D.

2560 Ocean Avenue | Brooklyn, NY, 11229-4507

David Showalter

600 North Cattlemen Rd | Sarasota, Florida, 34232

Shahin Pourrabbani

3680 Imperial Highway | Lynwood, CA, 90262

Richard Hershberger

600 North Cattlemen Rd | Sarasota, FL, 34232

Mark Garcia

701 N. Clayton St. | Wilmington, DE, 19805

Timothy Manoni

215 Stillwater Ave | Stamford, CT, 6902

Andrew Olinde

5131 O'Donovan Drive 301 | Baton Rouge, LA, 70808

Allison Barone

250 Engle Street | Englewood, NJ, 7631

Thomas Lutz

15 Tower Ct Suite 200 | Gurnee, IL, 60031

Mark Iafrati

800 Washington st | Boston, MA, 2111

Jerry Chen

2775 Laurel Street, Room 4203 | Vancouver, BC, V5Z1M9

Michael Sergi

75 Kings highway Cutoff, Suite 4B | Fairfield, CT, 6824

Jinok Chung

721 George Nigh Express Way | McAlester, OK, 74501

Oklahoma Heart Hospital

Mohammad Ali Saeed

16701 Creek Bend Dr | Sugar Land, TX, 77478

Advanced Vascular & Interventional Center

Mahesh Raju

3825 Highland Ave | Downers Grove, IL, 60515

Russell Samson

600 North Cattlemen Rd | Sarasota, FL, 34232

Christopher Marrocco

3680 Imperial Highway | Lynwood, CA, 90262

Mark Bowles

2600 N Woodlawn Blvd | Wichita, KS

Foluso Fakorede

800 North Pearman | Cleveland, MS, 3873

Jonathan Bowman

215 Stillwater Ave | Stamford, CT, 6902

Carl Fastabend

501 Dr. Michael DeBakey Drive (3rd Floor) | Lake Charles, LA, 70601

Thomas Lee

131 Madison Avenue 2nd Floor | Morristown, NJ, 7960

Peter Swischuk

3109 Stirling rd. Suite 100 | Fort Lauderdale, FL, 33312

David Draughn, FACS, RVT, RPVI

15825 John J Delaney Dr | Charlotte, NC, 28277

Joe Viramontes

960 N 16th Street Suite 108 | Springfield, OR, 97477

Kaveh Shahmohammadi

1449 Old Waterbury Rd, Suite 101 | Southbury, CT, 6488

Madaiah Revana

9950 Memorial Blvd., Suite 201 | Humble, TX, 77338

Northeast Houston Vein Center

Madaiah Revana

9950 Memorial Blvd | Humble, TX, 77338

Joe Viramontes, MD

960 N 16th Street | Springfield, OR, 97477

Michael Lepore

600 North Cattlemen Rd | Sarasota, FL, 34232

Amiel Moshfegh

11411 Brookshire Ave | Downey, CA, 90241

Jim Melton

3200 Quail Springs Parkway | Oklahoma City, OK, 73134

Cardiovascular Health Clinic

Matthew Comstock

11912 S Norwood Ave | Tulsa, OK, 74137

Stephen Bauer

215 Stillwater Ave | Stamford, CT, 6902

Nouri Al-Khaled

4400 W 95th Street, Suite 306 | Oak Lawn, IL, 60453

Cindy Sturt

200 S. Orange Ave | Livingston, NJ, 7039

Jesus Jimenez

2800 S Seacrest Dr. Suite 200 | Boyton Beach, FL, 33435

Andrei Pop

800 Biesterfield Road | Elk Grove Village, IL, 60007

Ediberto Soto-Cora

1139 Caper Rd | El Paso, TX, 79925

Jason Andre

12720 McManus Blvd, Suite 303 | Newport News, VA, 23602

Jihad Mustapha

1525 E. Beltline NE, Ste. 101 | Grand Rapids, MI, 49525

Advanced Cardiac & Vascular Centers for Amputation Prevention

Marcus Smith

3200 Quail Springs Parkway | Oklahoma City, OK, 73134

Cardiovascular Health Clinic

Fuad Rafidi

2710 Alameda Ave | Burbank, CA, 91505

Douglas Dorsay

600 North Cattlemen Rd | Sarasota, Florida, 34232

George Hemstreet

100 Rice Mine Road Loop | Tuscaloosa, AL, 35406

Dwayne Schmidt

3200 Quail Springs Parkway | Oklahoma City, OK, 73134

Cardiovascular Health Clinic

Corey Keith Goldman

5041 Broadway | New York , New York , 10034

Paul Gagne

85 Old Kings Highway North | Darien, CT, 6820

Thomas Levin

10837 South Cicero Avenue Suite 200 | Oak Lawn, IL, 60453

Leandro Perez

8188 Jog Rd. Suite 100 | Boyton Beach, FL, 33427

Jose Almeida

1501 S Miami Ave. | Miami Beach, FL, 33129

Saba Khan

800 Biesterfield Road | Elk Grove Village, IL, 60007

Jordan Knepper

5325 Elliot Drive, Suite 101 | Ypsilanti, MI, 48197

Brian Heeringa

880 Munson Ave, Suite A | Traverse City, MI, 49686

Fadi Saab

1525 E. Beltline NE, Ste. 101 | Grand Rapids, MI

Advanced Cardiac & Vascular Centers for Amputation Prevention

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322 Shirley Avenue | Douglas, GA, 31533

Douglas Vascular Center

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18840 Ventura Blvd | Tarzana, CA, 91356

Robert E. Edmonson, MD

221 W Colorado Blvd Pavillion 2, | Dallas, TX, 75208

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8767 Perimeter Park Blvd | Jacksonville, FL, 32216

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3200 Quail Springs Parkway | Oklahoma City, OK, 73134

Cardiovascular Health Clinic

Corey Goldman

625 East Fordham Road | Bronx, New York , 10458

Roben Ahdoot

8500 Wilshire Blvd #518 | Beverly Hills, CA, 90211

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316 Manatee Ave W | Bradenton, FL, 34205

Patricio Rosa

601 N Flamingo Rd. Suite 408 | Pembroke Pines, FL, 33028

Akhilesh Sista

2315 Broadway 4th floor | New York, NY, 10024

Kathleen Gibson

1135 116th Avenue NE, Suite 305 | Bellevue, WA, 98004

James Sampson

101 Bodin Circle 60 SGCS/SGCH | Travis AFB, CA, 94535

Vincent Digiovanni

Riddle Health Center 3, 1098 W Baltimore Pike, Suite 3308 | Media, PA, 19063

Sachin Jain

944 N Broadway #106 | Yonkers, NY

Jain Medical PC

Sreekumar Madassery

1725 W Harrison St. | Chicago, IL, 60612

Chicago Vascular & Vein Institute at Rush University Medical Center

Vaqar Ali

7011 AC Skinner Parkway | Jacksonville, FL, 32256

Abhishek Kumar

150 Bergen Street | Newark, NJ, 7103

Cade Raggio

3833 Fairfax Drive | Arlington, VA, 22205

Abaraham Lin

1000 Towne Center Blvd | Pooler, Georgia, 31322

David Penn

7402 Davidson Circle West | Stockbridge, GA, 30281

Arash Malian Padidar

105 N. Bascom Ave. | San Jose, CA, 95128

Asad Sawar

3010 E. 138th Avenue Suite 12 | Tampa, FL, 33613

Andrew Barleben

9434 Medical Center Dr. | La Jolla, CA, 92037

Gennady Geskin

6637 State Route 30 | Jeannette, PA, 15644

William Grande

8200 east Belleview Ave Suite 600e | Greenwood Village, CO, 80111

Jeffrey Carr

1783 Troup Highway | Tyler, TX, 75701

Diego Hernandez

43700 Woodward Avenue, Suite 207 | Bloomfield Hills, MI, 48302

Rajesh Sharma

905 W 124th Avenue | Westminster, Colorado

Advanced Heart and Vein Center

Divyang Ayar

8619 Broadway Street | Pearland, TX, 77584

Coastal Vascular

Yazan Khatib

7011 AC Skinner Parkway | Jacksonville, FL, 32256

Ronald Winokur

2315 Broadway | New York, NY, 10024

Murat Sor

3833 Fairfax Drive | Arlingston, VA, 22205

Alexander Salloum

387 North Escondido Blvd | Escondido, CA, 92025

Hiranya Rajasinghe

2350 Vanderbilt Beach Road | Naples, FL, 34109

Roger Cronk

8020 Constitution Place NE | Albuquerque, NM

David Burkart

4801 College Blvd | Leawood, KS, 66214

Vasco Marques

3010 E. 138th Avenue Suite 12 | Tampa, FL, 33613

Scott Koss

725 American Ave | Waukesha, WI, 53188

Janardhan Srinivasan

2232 Wilborn Avenue | South Boston, VA, 24592

Steve Lin

1401 Harrodsburg Rd Ste A300 | Lexington, KY, 40509

Kais Yehyawi

6375 W US 6 | Portage, IN, 46368

Jed Peterson

10123 SE Market Street | Portland, OR, 97216

James Burks

16917 Enadia Way | Van Nuys, CA, 91406

Valley Vascular Associates

Mohammad Saeed

9701 Richmond Ave | Houston, TX, 77479

Advanced Vascular & Interventional Center

Constantino Pena

8900 North Kendall Drive | Miami, FL, 33176

Ravi Chandra

1920 SW 20th Place | Ocala, Florida, 34471

Shankar Sundaram

15611 Pomerado Road | Poway, CA, 92064

Andrew Martin

12610 E. Northwest Highway | Dallas, TX, 75228

Victor Shi, MD

660 Monterey Pass Rd | Monterey Park, CA, 91754

Shelby Bennett

490A West Zia Road | Santa Fe, NM, 87505

Thomas Kerr

19189 N Dale Mabry Hwy | Lutz, FL, 33548

Hesham Fakhri

3010 E. 138th Avenue Suite 12 | Tampa, FL, 33613

Aaron Hurd

630 13th Street Suite 250 | Augusta, GA, 30901

Sunil Rayan

9850 Genesee Ave | La Jolla, CA, 92037

David Lipski

6420 Dutchmans Pkwy Suite 180 | Louisville, KY, 40205

Rias Ali

4740 Mile Stretch Drive | Holiday, FL, 34690

Patricia Thorpe

333 W Thomas Rd, Suite 207A | Phoenix, AZ, 85013

Aaron Kovaleski

11920 Lioness Way | Parker, CO, 80134

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Uttam Tripathy

16605 Southwest Fwy Ste 575 | Sugar Land, TX, 77479

Alex Caballero

1879 Nightinglae Ln | Tavares , Florida, 32778

Dennis Bandyk MD

9434 Medical Center Drive | La Jolla, CA, 92037

Dale Buchbinder

1212 York Road | Lutherville, MD, 31093

Bhavananda Reddy

6321 S. Redwood Rd | Taylorsville, Utah, 84123

Salar Hakham, MD

660 Monterey Pass Rd | Monterey Park, CA, 91754

Nader Chadda

6633 Forest Ave Ste 302 | New Port Richey, FL, 34653

Richard Ofstein

8075 N Shadeland Ave Ste 200 | Indianapolis, IN, 46037

Robert Davies

1301 Sigman Road, NE Suite 130 | Conyers, GA, 30012

Elizabeth Brooke Spencer, MD, FSIR

8200 east Belleview ave Suite 600 E | Greenwood Village, CO, 80111

Mazen Abu-Fadel

825 NE 10th St #2500 | Oklahoma City, OK, 73104

David Frankel

10666 N. Torrey Pines Rd. | La Jolla, CA, 92037

Michael Flisak

3231 South Euclid Avenue, Suite 207A | Berwyn, IL, 60402

Azher Iqbal

6337 Transit Road | Depew, NY, 14043

Buffalo Vascular Care

James St. George

8767 Perimeter Park Blvd | FL, Jacksonville, 32216

Jun-Yang Lou

520 Medical Center Drive | Medford, OR, 97504

Ido Weinberg

55 Fruit St | Boston, MA, 02114

Hamid Sattar

19727 Allen Road | Brownstown, MI, 48183

Ashok Kondur

5250 Auto Club Drive | Dearborn, Michigan , 48126

Christopher Yi

387 North Escondido Blvd | Escondido, CA, 92025

Gene Tanquilut

20060 Governors Drive Suite 102 | Olympia Fields, IL, 60461

Kannan Natarajan

8433 Harcourt Rd. Suite 100 | Indianapolis, IN, 46260

Charles Ross

95 Collier Road NW Suite 5015 | Atlanta, GA, 30309

Windsor Ting

1468 Madison Avenue or 1190 Fifth Avenue | New York, NY, 10029

Dev Mangalat

705 Jesse Jewell Parkway 125 | Gainseville, GA, 30501

Arun Jagannathan

23120 South LaGrange Road | Frankfort, IL, 60423

Aaron Aday

75 Francis St | Boston, MA, 02115

Bret Wiechmann

6685 NW 9th Blvd | Gainesville, Florida, 32605

Vascular & Interventional Physicians

Omar Saleh

1520 North Mountain Ave Bld E | Ontario, Suite #205, CA

Paul Vitulli

915 W Monroe St | Jacksonville, FL, 32004

Deepak Sudheendra

3400 Spruce Street | Philadelphia, PA, 19104

Davin Haraway

2440 E 81st St | Tulsa, OK, 74137

Christopher Kim

6321 S. Redwood Rd | Taylorsville, Utah, 84123

Srinivas Gunukula

5308 N. Galloway Ave, suite# 100 | Mesquite, TX, 75150

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1. “Leg swelling Causes.” Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 01 Apr. 2017.

2. “Causes and signs of edema.” PubMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. December 30, 2016

3. Trayes et al. “Edema: Diagnosis and Management.Am Fam Physician. 2013 Jul 15;88(2):102-110.

4. “Edema.Medline PLUS. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disclaimer

The opinions and clinical experiences presented herein are for informational purposes only. Individual results may vary depending on a variety of patient-specific attributes and related factors. Dr. Raghu Kolluri has been compensated by Philips for his services in preparing and providing this material for Philips further use and distribution.

We offer links to third-party websites that may be of interest to our website visitors and in no way, represent any affiliation or endorsement of the information provided on those linked websites. These links are provided solely for your convenience and to assist you in learning more information on this topic. However, Philips does not control, endorse or guarantee the accuracy of the information contained on the linked sites. In addition, Philips makes no representations or warranties of any kind with regards to any third-party websites or information contained therein. If you have any questions or concerns about the information on the linked third-party websites, please contact the third-party websites directly.